About Organizational Behavior & Modification
The complexity and
high degree of interaction of the parts of an organization, whether these
parts be functions groups or individuals, indicate one definition in terms
of complex system criteria.
Perhaps the most important argument for a system conception of organization is that the environment within which organization exist is becoming increasing by unstable. With the rapid growth of technology, the expansion of economic markets and rapid social and political change, come constant pressures for organizations to change, adapt, and grow to meet the challenges of the environment. And as one examines this process, one is struck that it is the total organization, not merely some key individuals, who must be studied if this process is to be properly understood.
The organization in relation to its environment
between organizations and their environments are complex and as yet not
well conceptualized. First of all, it is difficult to define the appropriate
boundaries what size its environment is. Where does a business concern
with its research departments, suppliers, transportation facilities, sales
offices and public relations offices-leave off and the community begin?
Is the relevant environment society as a whole, the economic and political
system, other companies in the same market the immediate community, the
union, or all of these?
What is the relevant environment of a university? Is it is the community, in which the university is located, is it the parents of its student body, is it society as the consumer of its graduates and its research and scholarly output, or is it the professional association of its professors? If we are to understand the forces which act upon organizations as system. We must be able to specify the environmental origin of such forces.
Second organization generally have several purposes or fulfill several functions, some of these functions are primary while others are secondary. Some are manifest and some are latent. The primary manifest function of a business concern is to make a product or service for profit secondary manifest functions is to private security and meaning for members of the community through the provisions of jobs. The cultural and social norms which dictate this secondary function are just as much a part of the environment as are the economic force which dictate a good product are a minimum cost. Yet these forces may impose conflicting demands on the organization.
Third the organization carries within itself representative of the external environment. Employees are not only members of the organization which employs them, but they are also members of society, other organizations, unions, consumer group and so on. From these various others roles they with them demands, expectations and cultural norms.
Fourth the nature
of the environment is itself changing very rapidly. We see this most clearly
in the rapid growth of technology, but change is also increasing in the
economic sector because of the expansion of markets throughout the entire
world and the socio-political sector because of changing norms about the
priorities which should guide technologically sophisticated countries
like the United States. From being relatively stable and predictable,
portions of the environment have become what trist and emery call turbulent
turbulent environments require a different kind of capacity to resound
on the part of organizations.
In the university, the professors respond to one set of norms deriving from cultural concepts of science an scholarship, students are developing a different set of norms based on their frustration that within society remain unsolved, while the curriculum remain unrelated to the solution of those problems, the alumni in their role as financial donors to the university bring a third set of norms having to do with the prestige and quality of the organization by more traditional criteria
For all of the above reasons, organization theorists have begun to build more complex models, which attempt to take into account relationships between systems and their environments.
Organizational Behavior modification
Behavioral science is a very complex area itself. Therefore is not surprising that there are numerous specialists within it. Each specialist is concerned with some aspect of interpersonal relationships. Consequently with some aspect of interpersonal relationships. Consequently at training they usually to not teach the same body of knowledge, rather than approach the matter quite differently.
Several Behaviorists proposed different training techniques for human recourses development. Disturbed by the assumptions of behaviorists concerning motivation. And yet retaining some of their insights Luthans has proposed that the designates as organization behavior modification.
The differences are described thus, a motivational approach to organizational approach to organizational behavior infers that the practicing manager should attempt to define and manipulate such vague internal sates as desire. Satisfaction and attitude. Under the Organization modification approach, the manager determines the organizational goals he wants participant behavior to accomplish the organization stimuli available to control the behavior and the types and schedules of reinforcement that can be applied to the consequent behavior.
Behavior modification is also called as operate conditioning and positive reinforcement. It is based on learning theory and directed towards changing individual behavior rather then that of group of total organization. The desired behavior of individual can be reinforced by incentives such as money, social approval and responsibility. Thus the behavior of organizational participants can be turned towards the results desired including efficient productive efforts. It has been increasingly efficient productive efforts. It has been increasingly applied to a variety of organizations including business firms.
Behavior modification applies thorn dikes law of effect, which asserts that behavior perceived to lead to a positive result will be repeated, behavior that has a neutral or negative result will tend not to be repeated , Reinforcement of a persons behavior can positive or negative-positive if a desired behavior is regarded negative if an undesired behavior is punished. Most trainers push to avoid negative reinforcement and to reply on positive reinforcement skinner has advocated the maximum use of positive reinforcement he opposes negative reinforcement because of its conceive implication.
Reinforcement proceeds in three stages. First, the superior gives frequent positive reinforcement based on feedback from subordinates performance, shaping their performance by constructive suggestion is infrequent and the use of praise. In the second stage reinforcement is infrequent and given at unpredictable times. Finally supervisory reinforcement is reduced greatly, allowing task accomplishment to become the subordinates primary souses of reward. All this call for training supervisors in reinforcement methods getting them to accept the psychology involved. Stages that is ideal, that has proved difficult to reach in May eases.
Those methods have been extensively used in the Amery air freight corporation. Its programs begin with a performance audit to measure the individuals current result. Work standards are then adjusted established by the supervisors, Subordinates keep performance records which are then scrutinized by their supervisors to recognize praise and reward goods results ant to criticize poor results. The program met with the difficulty that the progress reports remained necessary the envisaged natural reinforcement. The company has nevertheless deemed the program successful.
Organization Behavior Modification is a controversial technique, chiefly because of its implication of manipulation and control over people. It runs counter to beliefs in freedom and freewill and makes and environments the basis of control. But skinner believes that the feeling of freedom is the important thing and that the individual feels free when he can act to avoid a negative reinforcement or to obtain a positive reinforcement. Indeed the use of this technique appears to be promising and productive.
& Motivation in an Organization |
Principles in Wages Formulation |
| Conflict Detrimental in an Organization | Organizational Behavior and Modification | Developing Effective Communication | Roles & Responsibilities of a Manager in an Organization |